Tag Archives: Lipstick

Lipstick (Part 3)

Ingredients

Lipstick Story image for lipstick ingredients from Rackedcontains wax, oils, antioxidants and emollients. Wax provides the structure to the solid lipstick. Lipsticks may be made from several waxes such as beeswax, ozokerite and candelilla wax. Because of its high melting point, Carnauba wax is a key ingredient in terms of strengthening the lipstick. Various oils and fats are used in lipsticks, such as olive oil, mineral oil, cocoa butter, lanolin, and petrolatum. Lead and other trace metals are also found in many lipsticks. It is impossible to know whether these metals are in the lipstick by looking at the ingredient list because they are not an intentional ingredient added, but rather, an unintentional contaminant.

Lipsticks get their colors from a variety of pigments and lake dyes including, but not limited to bromo acid, D&C Red No. 21, Calcium Lake such as D&C Red 7 and D&C Red 34, and D&C Orange No. 17. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing white titanium dioxide and red shades. Both organic and inorganic pigments are employed.

Matte lipsticks contain more filling agents like silica but do not have many emollients. Creme lipsticks contain more waxes than oils. Sheer and long lasting lipsticks contain more oil, while long lasting lipsticks also contain silicone oil, which seals the colors to the wearer’s lips. Glossy lipstick contain more oil to give a shiny finish to the lips. Shimmery or frost lipstick may contain mica, silica, and synthetic pearl particles, such as bismuth oxychloride, to give them a glittery or shimmering shine.

Story image for lipstick ingredients from Good Herald

Lipstick is made from grinding and heating ingredients. Then heated waxes are added to the mix for texture. Oils and lanolin are added for specific formula requirements. Afterwards, the hot liquid is poured onto a metal mold. The mixture is then chilled. Once they have hardened, they are heated in flame for half a second to create a shiny finish and to remove imperfections.

Lead Traces

In 2007, a study by the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics released a report called “A Poison Kiss” that tested 33 popular brands of lipstick for its lead content. The study found that 61 percent of lipsticks contained lead with levels up to 0.65 parts per million (ppm). The study done by the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics brought about public knowledge and put pressure on the FDA to conduct their own studies using a specialized testing method. In 2009, the FDA released a follow-up study to the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics’ report and found lead in all 20 samples tested. The lead levels ranged from 0.09 to 3.06 ppm. The highest lead levels in the 2009 FDA study were in lipsticks made by Cover Girl, L’Oreal, and Revlon.

In 2010, the FDA conducted an expanded survey on its previous study, which broadened the testing to 400 lipsticks that were available on the U.S. market at the time. This study was done by Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. using the same testing method as 2009. This study found an average of 1.11 ppm compared to the 1.07 ppm average in the 2009 study. The maximum lead level found was 7.19 ppm in Maybelline’s Color Sensational 125 – Pink Petal. This is over two times the maximum limit found in the 2009 study.

Lead is not listed as an ingredient in lipstick, but trace amounts can be found in the mineral based additives. Lead is naturally occurring in soil, water, and air. This means that lead can find its way into the raw ingredients used in lipstick color additives. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics made a list of chemicals for concern, which can contain toxic chemicals such as lead. While only trace amounts of lead are ingested from lipstick, lead accumulates in the body, which can lead to lead poisoning. The most common users of lipstick are teens and adult women. A study done by the University of California – Berkley found that women applied lipstick anywhere from two to fourteen times a day. This translates to up to 87 milligrams of product ingestion per day. Lead ingestion is particularly concerning for pregnant women because lead can enter the fetus from the mother. The FDA is the regulating body of cosmetic safety under the FD&C Act. Cosmetics regulated by the FD&C Act do not need to be approved for pre-market sale, but pre-market approval is required for the color additives used in lipsticks. Currently the FDA has not set an acceptable lead limit level for lipsticks specifically, but it has set specifications for lead in the color additives used in lipstick. The FDA’s maximum lead limit level is 20 parts per million in cosmetics; however since lipstick is absorbed through the skin and only ingested in very small quantities, the FDA does not “consider the lead levels we found in the lipsticks to be a safety concern”. The CDC, on the other hand, reports that there is no safe blood level for lead, and that even low levels of lead affect IQ, the ability to pay attention, and academic achievement. The effects of lead exposure are not able to be corrected.

Lipstick (Part 2)

Lipstick Trends

Throughout the early 20th century, lipstick came in a limited number of shades. Dark red was one of the most popular shade throughout the 19th and 20th century. Dark red lipstick was popular in the 1920s. Flappers wore lipstick to symbolize their independence. Lipstick was worn around the lips to form a “Cupid’s bow,” inspired by actress Clara Bow. At that time, it was acceptable to apply lipstick in public and during lunch, but never at dinner. In the early 1930s, Elizabeth Arden began to introduce different lipstick colors. She inspired other companies to create a variety of lipstick shades. In the 1930s, lipstick was seen as symbol of adult sexuality. Teenage girls believed that lipstick was a symbol of womanhood. Adults saw it as an act of rebellion. Many Americans, especially immigrants, did not accept teenage girls wearing lipstick. A study in 1937 survey revealed that over 50% of teenage girls fought with their parents over lipstick.

In the mid-1940s, several teen books and magazines stressed that men prefer a natural look over a made-up look. Books and magazines also warned girls that wearing cosmetics could ruin their chances of popularity and a career. The implication of these articles was that lipstick and rouge were for teen girls who acted very provocatively with men. Despite the increased use of cosmetics, it was still associated with prostitution. Teen girls were discouraged from wearing cosmetics for fear that they would be mistaken for “loose” girls or prostitutes.

By the 1950s, movie actresses Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor helped bring back dark red lips. A 1951 survey revealed that two-thirds of teenage girls wore lipstick. In 1950 chemist Hazel Bishop formed a company, Hazel Bishop Inc., to promote her invention of long-lasting, non-smearing ‘kissproof’ lipstick (“stays on you… not on him”), which quickly gained acceptance. At the end of the 1950s, a cosmetic company named Gala introduced pale shimmery lipstick. Later, Max Factor created a popular lipstick color called Strawberry Meringue. Lipstick manufacturers began creating lipsticks in lavender, pale pink, white, and peach. Since parents generally frowned on teen girls wearing red lipstick, some teen girls began wearing pink and peach lipsticks, which became a trend. White or nearly white lipstick was popular in the 1960s. Rock groups such as the Ronettes and the Shirelles popularized white lipstick. Girls would apply white lipstick over pink lipstick or place under-eye concealer on their lips. During that time, many lipsticks were either matte, sheer, or slightly shiny. In the 1960s, lipstick was associated with femininity. Women who did not wear lipstick were suspected of mental illness or lesbianism. In the 1970s, a number of cosmetic companies introduced lipsticks in more unusual colors such as iridescent light blue (Kanebo), frosted lime green (Conga Lime by Revlon), and silver sparkled navy blue (Metallic Grandma by Biba). M•A•C cosmetics continues to release limited edition and highly collectible lipsticks in a wide range of colors and finishes, including unusual hues of violets, blues, and greens. Black lipstick became popular in the late 1970s and into the 1990s. In the 1950s, black lipstick had been worn by actresses starring in horror films. It became popular again due in part to punk and goth subcultures.

In the mid-1980s, so-called mood lipstick were sold to adults by mainstream cosmetic companies. This type of lipstick changes colors after it is applied, based on changes in skin’s pH that supposedly reflect the wearer’s mood. By the 1990s, lipstick colors became semi-matte. Shades of brown were very popular. These shades were inspired by several shows such as “Friends”. In the late 1990s and into the 21st century, pearl shades became very popular. Lipsticks were no longer matte or semi-matte, they were shiny and contained several interference pearls.

In 2012, bright bold lip colors became trendy again with saturated colors such as hot pink, neon, and orange. In 2014 and early 2015 nude lipsticks were coming up to be incredibly popular. These lipsticks follow the general trend where “less is more”. Examples of celebrities promoting this trend are Paris Hilton and Gigi Gorgeous. In late 2015 and 2016 liquid lipstick, which applies like a gloss but dries matte, became popularized with brands such as Anastasia Beverly Hills. Its most common form comes in a tube, applied with an applicator wand. Lipstick also has many variations including lip balms, glosses, crayons, pencils, liners, and stains. Balms and glosses tend to be more translucent and not as dark or vibrant.